A large proportion of patients with NAFLD have co-existing metabolic syndrome which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A strong association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease has been long suspected and recent studies have confirmed that cardiovascular disease is the single most important cause of mortality in these patient population. There is a suggestion that NAFLD may pose cardiovascular risk above and beyond that is conferred by traditional cardiovascular risk factors e. Health care providers managing patients with NAFLD should recognize this increased cardiovascular risk and should undertake early aggressive risk factor modification. It is histologically characterized by the presence of macrovesicular steatosis but occurs in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption. Its histological spectrum includes simple steatosis and steatohepatitis NASH. Conventional risk factor increasing CVD include age, hypertension, diabetes, physical inactivity, smoking, hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome and diet. New and novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease include markers for inflammation e. The common denominator for both diseases i.
Med Sci Sports Exerc. Table 2 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease spectrum and definitions. Current management of FLD is achieved through several methods including lifestyle changes leading to weight loss and obesity reduction, in addition to the prevention of MetS by controlling cardiometabolic risk factors involved as well as improving NASH in order to prevent the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and eventually HCC. These include inflammation, adipokines, intestinal dysbiosis, genetics, oxidative stress as well as psychological stress such as anxiety and depression 13 among others which are all established markers for CVD. Moreover, a study conducted on type 2 diabetics by Bonapace et al.
Insulin resistance is significantly involved in the pathogenesis of FLD. Alcohol intake and systemic markers of inflammation—shape of the association nor to sex and body mass index. Journal List Front Med Lausanne v. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Minerva Endocrinol.